[54], Charles Snyder, the Lucien Howe Librarian of Ophthalmology at Harvard Medical School, said "Granular conjunctivitis, ophtalmia, trachomacall it what you willwas common on the Western Frontier. To date, four children have been credited to the lady, although some of the claims have come from the children themselves. He drove freight wagons and coaches. In the early 1990s ABC television series Young Riders, a fictional account of Pony Express riders, Hickok is portrayed by Josh Brolin.[80]. The bear then grabbed his arm in its mouth, but Hickok was able to grab his knife and slash its throat, killing it. The. [6][35] Witnesses confirm that while working as a scout at Fort Harker, Kansas, on May 11, 1867, Hickok was attacked by a large group of Indians, who fled after he shot and killed two. [3][4] James was the fourth of six children. When did cowboys begin wearing these shirts? Did such wagons actually exist? Were Wild Bill Hickok and Calamity Jane married, and did they have a daughter? Jessie later said that the Deadwood Chief of Police wrote her about Janes death in 1903. All Rights Reserved. Hickok saved Cody from getting beaten by another man and the two became longtime pals. Calamity Jane is reputed to have led a mob that threatened McCall with lynching, but at the time of Hickok's death, Jane was actually being held by military authorities. [46]:pp.5456[47], In August 1871, Hickok sought to arrest Hardin for killing Charles Couger in an Abilene hotel "for snoring too loud". Hickok said he had "tried to restore order". But thirty years had passed when she began making inquiries about Jane, whom she thought was her grandmother. In court she presented the judge with a doctors certificate indicating she was in a rather delicate condition, an early euphemism for pregnant. On the afternoon of August 2, 1876, he was playing cards with his back to the door, something he seldom did. In the Clint Eastwood movie Hang em High, a tumbleweed wagon picks up prisoners to haul them off to jail. Di Certo is the author of ten books and composer of three albums of children's songs. In 1941, Jean Hickok McCormick appeared in Billings, Montana. After his release, McCall had lingered in Deadwood for a short while before heading to Wyoming. The watch had great sentimental value to Hickok, so he asked Tutt not to wear it in public. Children: Possibly two daughters; . The first major description of the incident appeared in Harpers New Monthly Magazine in February 1867, six years after the fact, written by Col. George Ward Nichols, who claimed to have been told the story by Hickok in 1865. He earned a great deal of notoriety in his own time, much of it bolstered by the many outlandish and often fabricated tales he told about himself. The family did some moving around during this time period and the next child, James Butler Hickok, was born in May of 1837. Charlie Utter, Hickok's friend and companion, claimed Hickok's body and placed a notice in the local newspaper, the Black Hills Pioneer, which read: Died in Deadwood, Black Hills, August 2, 1876, from the effects of a pistol shot, J. [58] Jane confirmed this account in an 1896 newspaper interview, although she claimed she had been hospitalized with illness rather than in the guardhouse. If James Butler "Wild Bill" Hickok had an eye disease, present-day experts believe that, like many others of his time, he may have suffered from trachoma. [59], The next day, Hickok was playing poker again. Hardin left Kansas before Hickok could arrest him. The event haunted Hickok for the rest of his life. Quay House, The Ambury, [citation needed], Henry M. Stanley, of the Weekly Missouri Democrat, reported Hickok to be "an inveterate hater of Indian People", perhaps to enhance his reputation as a scout and American fighter, but separating fact from fiction is difficult considering his recruitment of Indians to cross the nation to appear in his own Wild West show. Take that!" [1][2], James Butler Hickok was born May 27, 1837, in Homer, Illinois, (present-day Troy Grove, Illinois) to William Alonzo Hickok, a farmer and abolitionist, and his wife, Polly Butler. https . [d] The jury voted to clear Hickok, resulting in public backlash and criticism of the verdict. authorities, and after trial has been sentenced to death for willful murder. [44] In his 1895 autobiography, published after his death, Hardin claimed to have been befriended by Hickok, the newly elected town marshal, after he had disarmed the marshal using the road agent's spin, but Hardin was known to exaggerate. The old cemetery was in an area that was better suited for the constant influx of new settlers to live on, so the remaining bodies there were eventually also moved up the hill to the Mount Moriah Cemetery (in the 1880s). In another account of the Coe shootout: Theophilus Little, the mayor of Abilene and owner of the town's lumber yard, recorded his time in Abilene by writing in a notebook, which was ultimately given to the Abilene Historical Society. The gun did not sell because the highest bid of $220,000 was less than the reserve set by the gun's owners.[76]. ", This page was last edited on 27 February 2023, at 18:12. This was his sixth murder. The bullet emerged through his right cheek and struck another player, riverboat Captain William Massie, in the left wrist. Hickok remains a popular figure of frontier history. "[49], Hickok and Phil Coe, a saloon owner and acquaintance of Hardin's, had a dispute that resulted in a shootout. ", Hermon, Gregory (1987). Brink, were tried for killing McCanles, but were found to have acted in self-defense. There, the freight company had built a stagecoach stop along the Oregon Trail near Fairbury, Nebraska, on land purchased from David McCanles. Duck Bill and Shanghai Bill Leaving Springfield, he was recommended for the position of deputy federal marshal at Fort Riley, Kansas. They traveled to Deadwood, South Dakota, together and were acquaintances, but there is no evidence of a romance (especially on his part). He is said to have wrestled a bear [39] Three sheriffs had quit during the previous 18 months. In 1855, at the age of 18, he left to become a part of thegrowing American West. Hickok may have been acting sheriff before he was elected; a newspaper reported that he arrested offenders on August 18, and the commander of Fort Hays wrote a letter to the assistant adjutant general on August 21 in which he praised Hickok for his work in apprehending deserters. During Wild Bill Hickok 's life he was many things such as, an actor, gambler, lawman, and a marksman specialists. 22nd August 2017 A young drifter named Jack McCall walked in and approached Hickok from behind. After the war Hickok continued his adventurous ways, at times just skirting the right side of the law. A legend during his life and considered one of the American west's premier gunfighters, James Butler ("Wild Bill") Hickok was born May 27, 1837, in Troy Grove, Illinois. While Hickok claimed to have killed numerous named and unnamed gunmen in his lifetime, his career as a gunfighter only lasted from 1861 to 1871. Paramount Pictures' Western silent film Wild Bill Hickok (released on November 18, 1923) was directed by Clifford Smith and stars William S. Hart as Hickok. When a seat opened up at the table, a drunk man named Jack McCall sat down to play. He was bedridden for four months before being sent to Rock Creek Station in the Nebraska Territory to work as a stable hand while he recovered. Jane claimed that James Butler Hickok was the father of her child Jean . Since he was actually shot in the back of the head, that plot element is a complete artifice of the episode writers. This was claimed after he was killed during a poker game on Aug. 2, 1876. He claimed he was avenging Hickok's earlier slaying of his brother, which may have been true; a man named Lew McCall had indeed been killed by an unknown lawman in Abilene, Kansas, but whether or not the two McCall men were related is unknown. Against the bloody backdrop of the uniquely volatile point in history, both killers earned a reputation for viciousness. .css-m6thd4{-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;display:block;margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;font-family:Gilroy,Helvetica,Arial,Sans-serif;font-size:1.125rem;line-height:1.2;font-weight:bold;color:#323232;text-transform:capitalize;}@media (any-hover: hover){.css-m6thd4:hover{color:link-hover;}}10 Black Pioneers in Aviation Who Broke Barriers. In 1869 Hickok became sheriff of Hays City, Kansas, where he killed several men in shootouts. One story claimed he killed a bear with his bare hands and a bowie knife. Hardin was in town under his assumed name Wesley Clemmons, but was better known to the townspeople by the alias "Little Arkansas". [66] McCall was acquitted of the murder, which prompted editorializing in the Black Hills Pioneer: "Should it ever be our misfortune to kill a man we would simply ask that our trial may take place in some of the mining camps of these hills." Calamity Jane never married Wild Bill Hickok. Hickok ordered him to be arrested for firing a pistol within the city limits. ", Rosa, Joseph G. (1977). Even in death Hickok's legend grew. She said she was the daughter of Jane and Wild Bill Hickok, and was born in a cabin near Livingston, Montana in 1873. During the Civil War he found employment as a teamster and spy for the Union Army. Perhaps most famously, Harper's New Monthly Magazine printed an account of the story in 1867, claiming Hickok had killed 10 men. [38], In July 1869, Hickok returned to Hays and was elected city marshal of Hays and sheriff of Ellis County, Kansas, in a special election held on August 23, 1869. That winter, writer M.L. In the film version, Howard Keel co-stars as Hickok to Doris Day's Calamity Jane. Macintosh of irregularities and misconduct during the election. [6] Since the event was outdoors, he could not compel people to pay, and the venture was a financial failure. When they returned from overseas, Agnes and Bill Lake decided to start their own circus. [3] [4] James was the fourth of six children. Although the show brought Hickok some much-needed income, he was unhappy, began drinking heavily, and returned to the West in March 1874. Hickok may have picked up the nickname Wild Bill for his daring fighting in the Union army during the Civil War, which included service as a spy, a scout, and a sharpshooter. McCall alleged that John Varnes, a Deadwood gambler, had paid him to murder Wild Bill. Just weeks later, on her deathbed in Terry, South Dakota, Jane confessed that she and Jessie were now estranged and declined to say where her daughter was living.

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